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Old 12-19-2006, 02:51 PM   #71
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Coyote: I can see where this is going... A manual advance lever on the steering wheel, like in the days of the Model T. Everything old is new again.
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Old 12-19-2006, 03:44 PM   #72
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"We already know you're nuts, so fire away!"

OK you asked for it! This is going to be long, and not everything will apply to all cars. This is just the stuff I'm doing with my ecu. The stock ecu in my car controls just about everything, there are very few mechanical controls. This will be a shotgun approach, I'll list everything in my notes. It's up to each individual to examine their car to see if improvements can be made in each area.

Idle speed control (isc): regulated by a stepper motor, 0 steps is closed, 120 steps is fully open, 30 steps is base/normal.
-ECT based offset when starting to crank, added to base isc depending on ect. This is how high the engine revs when first started.
-Timer that counts down starting-to-crank isc offset, this is how quickly the revs drop to idle after being started.
-Starting to crank fuel enrichment aka choke. How much extra fuel is added when starting the motor.
-Starting to crank countdown timer used to decrease choke enrichment. Has two speeds; enrichment decreases quickly at first, then slower.
-Starting to crank timer threshold between quick and slow timer.
-Target idle speed based on ect. Lower your idle speed, especially when the engine is cold and running most rich.
-Rolling idle speed, isc steps added to base when car is moving. Also based on ECT, higher when cold.
-Threshold where car is considered moving/stopped.
-ISC offsets added to base if A/C is on, power steering pressure is up, and ? somthing else.
-Coasting fuel cutoff, cuts fuel when engine rpm is above threshold and throttle is closed. I lowered the threshold so I can coast longer in gear with the fuel off. A side benefit is that there is very little engine braking available at lower rpms, so I can keep the car in a higher gear and coast longer. Useful when EOC is not appropriate for the conditions.
-Accelleration enrichment fuel adder based on ECT, how quickly the throttle is opened, and a timer used to taper off accel enrich.
-Warmup temperature threshold for determining open loop vs. closed loop (31*C on my car), and warmup2 used for closed loop/cold engine enrichment vs. closed loop/fully warm engine (86*c).
-fuel trim update temp, based on ect. Below this temperature threshold the fuel trims are not updated.
-ECT based fuel enrichment table. Runs richer at colder temps, decreased to standard enrichment as airflow goes up.
-EGR solenoid duty cycle map, based on load and rpm. Adjust EGR use at individual rpm/load points. 56 datapoints.
-EGR solenoid modifyer based on ECT
-Rev limit. Fuel and ignition are cut off above this limit. Could be useful if someone is using weak valve springs?

-Ignition timing map, 192 points based on rpm and load. On my car there are a few areas on the map where timing is decreased in order to smooth the power delivery, such as when the turbo is spooling up. There is another area where timing is decreased to make the car feel more torquey, such as low load at 1000 to 1750 rpm. Standard theory is that timing should go up as rpm goes up, and timing should go down as load increases. But at low load/low rpm it starts with low timing, then timing increases as load increases from load level 1 (lightest load) to level 4 (out of 12 levels). The difference is significant, about 6 degrees less timing at light load vs. load level 4. The stock timing map 'FEELS' nice, power surges as you step on the throttle. I changed the timing in that area so it's flat, no increase or decrease from level 1 through 4, and I found I can back off the throttle much farther once up to speed. In other words, I'm using less throttle to maintain 35mph.

-Ign timing corrections based on ECT. timing is increased below19*F.
-Ign timing corrections based on air temp. The stock map decreases timing at temps above 100*F and below 48*F. I changed it to increase timing between 73* and 19*F, with a max increase of one degree at 48*F. and tapering off above and below that temp. My change was based on the theory that colder air lowers the octane requirement of the fuel. It's also possible that the engineers might have reduced timing in this area so the power would not change with temp since their buyers might complain when the weather warms up that power is lacking. Just a thought.
-Open loop fuel map. 168 points based on rpm and load. Specifies a target A/F ratio depending on the rpm and load level. Only used during open loop.
-Open/Closed loop thresholds based on rpm/throttle position. Changes the point where open loop is used. I raised the thresholds so I can dip into the throttle at low rpm without going into open loop, and so I can stay in closed loop at higher rpm.
-Open/Closed loop thresholds based on rpm/airflow load. Same as above, try to stay in closed loop longer.
- A/C on/off threshold based on throttle position. WOT shuts off A/C. Lower the threshold so A/C is off during anything greater than light accelleration.
-Closed loop O2 feedback cycling speed. How quickly the O2 sensor cycles up/down.
-O2 feedback stoich trigger. Stock is set to .5 volts. Can be changed in .02V increments, may affect emmissions.
-O2 feedback increase/ decrease values. How much fuel is added/ removed from base fuel calculation in order to get the O2 sensor cycling.
A wide range is used to help find .5v and center the short term trim. Used for the first 4 seconds each time after returning to closed loop.
-O2 feedback increase/decrease values, narrow range used after 4 seconds to increase O2 sensor cycling speed and limit wide excursions from .5v Based on airflow and rpm. Different tables are used depending on Federal or California market.
-O2 feedback timer. Stock is set to 4 seconds, can be changed to reduce the ammount of time spent in wide range cycling. May improve emmissions.
-Dash pot. Timer used to decrease fuel gradually when throttle is closed. Helps smooth the transition between open to closed throttle. Stock timer is .75 seconds, ie fuel stays on for .75 seconds after throttle is closed.

All of the above is adjustable simply by changing a number in the hex code.

OK I think that's it for the stock stuff that could be adjusted to improve FE. There are also changes that can be made to match any modifications to the vehicle, such as different fuel pressure, different size injectors, different or modified airflow sensor. These help keep the car running optimally with other hardware.

I know some of that stuff is cryptic, so ask away.
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Old 12-19-2006, 05:07 PM   #73
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That's some great info, DRW. Thanks.
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Old 12-19-2006, 07:13 PM   #74
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Um, yeah ... that's all I was saying (as if I knew all that stuff )

But seriously, drw, where did you learn all that about your car's ecu? Also, what kind of eprom burner hdw can you recommend (I haven't done that kind of stuff since I did 8048 hand assembly )?
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Old 12-19-2006, 11:22 PM   #75
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Here's a site that helped me understand the code www.mcumaster.com/hc11/index.html For those interested, click on 'instructions' then any of the letters. This is a great resource for finding out what the opcodes actually do. I also had a lot of help from the DSM-ECU list.

Here's the burner I use, it's the one at the bottom, Burn1/Flash-N-Burn. www.moates.net/index.php?cPath=51 It works with 28 pin eprom chips. His site is worth checking out since he also makes burners, flash devices and dataloggers for GM, Ford, and Honda's too. The nice thing about the program in my ecu is that there is plenty of extra space for added features or tables!
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Old 12-20-2006, 07:50 AM   #76
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www.pgmfi.org is the honda site. No one has spent the time to learn the bimmer stuff for themselves, they just throw money at it instead...I use a TOP853 as my burner. I like it more than the burn1 because it's cheaper and it only has the one usb wire.
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Old 12-20-2006, 07:56 AM   #77
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DRW
Here's a site that helped me understand the code www.mcumaster.com/hc11/index.html For those interested, click on 'instructions' then any of the letters. This is a great resource for finding out what the opcodes actually do. I also had a lot of help from the DSM-ECU list.

Here's the burner I use, it's the one at the bottom, Burn1/Flash-N-Burn. www.moates.net/index.php?cPath=51 It works with 28 pin eprom chips. His site is worth checking out since he also makes burners, flash devices and dataloggers for GM, Ford, and Honda's too. The nice thing about the program in my ecu is that there is plenty of extra space for added features or tables!
Wow, more great info. The section in mcumaster.com on the 80C51 gave me flashbacks (it's actually the Intel successor to the 8048).

I take it that your ECU is a Motorolla HC11. How do you know this?

You have a lot of insight about what the ECU does with this processor. How did you gain all that knowledge about the actual application for your car's ECU?

Did you dump the ECU PROM and reverse engineer the assembly, get it from the the DSM-ECU list, or both?

Is there a software asembler for writing/editing the code for that processor chip?

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Originally Posted by SVOShrug
No one has spent the time to learn the bimmer stuff for themselves, they just throw money at it instead...
Thanks for the info. That's not really my style, so I guess I'll have to either look into it or get a honda project.

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Originally Posted by SVOUnit
I use a TOP853 as my burner. I like it more than the burn1 because it's cheaper and it only has the one usb wire.
Can you say where you got it? I see them both for about $85.
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Old 12-20-2006, 08:24 AM   #78
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I got mine on ebay for around 60 shipped I believe.

Honda's ecus have been cracked to the point where there are program interfaces so that you're not making changes to the binary anymore. With a BMW ecu, if you could figure out the assembly programming you'd be making the changes by hand in a binary file, which is ugly. That's how it started with hondas in 2000 when some random guy looked at his ecu and realized it had a 27c256 eprom. It took him months to figure out the most basic functions of the ecu, I'd never have a chance at it.

Anyway, if you want to do a honda project, you should check out Crome, just to see what the software looks like. www.pgmfi.org is the place to get it.
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Old 12-20-2006, 09:56 AM   #79
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Quote:
Originally Posted by SVOboy
Honda's ecus have been cracked to the point where there are program interfaces so that you're not making changes to the binary anymore.
After a limited search, it seems the bimmer ecus not only have a non socketed EPROM but the memory contents are supposedly encrypted. Figures. I still don't know what hardware I have but that could be why $ is the only known crack.
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Old 12-20-2006, 10:35 AM   #80
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Silveredwings
I take it that your ECU is a Motorolla HC11. How do you know this?
Yup, it's based on the Motorolla HC11. Mitsubishi made a few changes to it. I learned it from others who know more than me- the members of the DSM-ECU list.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Silveredwings
You have a lot of insight about what the ECU does with this processor. How did you gain all that knowledge about the actual application for your car's ECU?
again, thanks go out to the DSM-ECU list.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Silveredwings
Did you dump the ECU PROM and reverse engineer the assembly, get it from the the DSM-ECU list, or both?

Is there a software asembler for writing/editing the code for that processor chip?
There aren't any disassemblers made for this ecu. Since it's loosely based on the Motorolla processor there are a few disassemblers that come close, but Mitsu also used their own in-house op-codes, so those had to be reverse engineered the hard way. I can only take partial credit since there's nearly a complete commented disasm posted on the DSM-ECU list. There are many areas in the disasm that are not completely clear, and that's where it helps to know what the car is doing under various conditions.
It's a synergistic relationship. I know a little bit about code and a whole lot about cars, and they know a whole lot about code. They've figured out most of the big, important parts. I've figured out several small sections, and added a couple extra features to the knowledge database.
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