MMUK, thank you for that update, I was under the impression that it was a scientific research paper, not a student's work.
BDC, the experience of your friend the Toyota Engineer is exactly my point, because of a situation that affects less than 1% of the vehicles on the road there is now a smog mandated piece of equipment on every vehicle, and in Cali if that solenoid heater is inoperative for me in the LA Basin, I would fail my next smog check living, working and driving in an area that gets down to freezing a handfull of times each year and NEVER gets any where near zero degrees, let alone below zero.
Again, peace brother, thank you again for your responses.
Heavy duty diesel truck emissions for 2013 are .2 g/hphr NOx and .01 g/hphr particulate matter. Also OBD had to released for the first time on all diesel engines in a manufacturers line up and for 2014, MPG has to increase from a 2010 baseline about 2-3% (varies by application and dutycycle of truck). The CO2 numbers that matter in Europe are just now starting here becuase we cannot reduce NOx or particulate matter anymore. We are reducing CO2 by increasing MPG. In 2017 there will be another 2-3% increase required. The reason there are differenct exemptions and measures for trucks is they vary so much. Trucks on the highway all the time use aerodynamics as much as anything to improve MPG while garbage trucks never go fast enough to need aero aids. Garbage trucks rely on fuel efficient tires. Engine makers will continue to tweak engines as muchy as they can to eek out more MPG. In the USA, future emmissions laws will be about increasing MPG/lowering CO2 for the next 10 years.