Oil filters are dead end filters that will eventually clog. The efficiency quoted on their carton is for a single pass through, because they have already started the clogging process.
The 'suspended contaminants' mentioned in another post are from the wear and tear oil goes through in the high stress environment of an engine. Outside sources, like sulfur content of the fuel, also play part. Their growing presence in the oil is why it turns darker shades.
My car had a cartridge filter that was easily changed from the top. No messing with jacks, crawling on the ground, or blind reaching to swap it out. So I swapped it out before actually changing the oil to see if it had any visual impact on the old oil.
Since it lighten the oil's color, that tells me the darkening was mostly due to those suspended particles, that they aren't simply too small for the filter, and that the old filter had the bypass valve open at some point prior to the oil change interval.
As to these contaminants settling out and blocking things, I no concern for that happening. There is the flow rate and pressure of the oil pump to keep things moving, and the oil itself contains detergents. Not only do they keep the particles in suspension, but they also keep those particles from clumping together to form sludge.
The real threat these particles pose is that they form acids when mixed with water, and it doesn't matter if they are trapped in the filter or not. But along with the detergents, the additive package in the oil also includes compounds to neutralize acid that forms.
As too early oil change on a new car, it is just a placebo. Modern manufacturing means the parts fit better when assembled than it was in the past, and the engine gets run as part of the QA process. If the manual doesn't call for an early oil change, then the car doesn't need it.